Carrier billing contributed a significant amount of income to mobile operators during the feature phone era. Now that smartphones have taken over, mobile operators have been almost completely excluded from transactions taking place on mobile devices, whether it's in-app purchases in apps downloaded from Google Play, clothing bought on Amazon's mobile app or payments made for Uber rides.
Instead, they are reduced to technical infrastructure providers for other companies. Digital content alone is a $57 billion business – so what should mobile operators do to get back in the game?
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